Help with “marketing strategy” and marketing and other issues etc questions. F293 revision business studies ocr


So I got an email yesterday and tried to help someone answer a question that asks to “recommend a marketing strategy.” For this question, you need to base it around the four 4 p’s as much as possible.That is, product, price, place and promotion. These are some of the points I suggested to consider. Hope it helps anyone! 🙂

As in talk about product, price place and promotion like what factors are there to consider. Okay so like,
Price: can they afford it? if not why not? how do we know? what are the costs associated? if they cant afford it should they forget about it or should they find another source of finance? which one and why?
Promotion: what adverising should they use? above the line or below the line? which type? how much will it cost? justify the best way why you think that. How could they promote the product successfully?
Product: how can they make their product market well? will they need to focus on what kind of production method they will be using? which one and why? do they have the USP to market the product well? should they carry out market research to have a more customer orientated product?
Place; what channels of distribution should they use and why? which one is most beneficial and what are the drawbacks of the one you  choose? should they stock the product or have a stockist or an outlet? 
Hope this helps?? its just about getting into as much detail about these things and it should help..

Macbeth top Gothic quotes litb3

Important quotes to learn for Macbeth, LITB3 exam on the Gothic.

  1. fair is foul and foul is fair
  2. O valiant cousin, worthy gentleman
  3. So foul and fair a day I have not seen
  4. You should be women yet your beards forbid me to interpret that you are so
  5. Why do you start, and seem to fear things that do sound so fear?
  6. Thou shalt get Kings, though thou be none
  7. Why do you dress me in borrowed robes?
  8. The instruments of darkness tell us truths
  9. Stars hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires
  10. Come you spirits that tend on moral thoughts, unsex me here
  11. Pall thee in the dunnest smoke of Hell
  12. Look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent under’t
  13. Who should against his murtherer shut the door not bear the knife myself
  14. we will proceed no more in this business
  15. I would white it was smiing in my face, have pluck’d my nipple from his boneless gumbs and dash’d the brains out, had I so sworn as you have done this
  16. In heaven their candles are all out
  17. Is this a dagger which I see before me, handle towards my hand?
  18. Had he not resembled my father as he slept, I had done’t
  19. I could not say Amen
  20. it will “make us mad”
  21. Macbeth shall sleep no more
  22. Will all great Neptune’s Ocean wash this blood clean from my hand
  23. I think thou play’dst most foully for it
  24. The devil himself could not pronounce a title more hateful to mine ear
  25. This dead butcher and his fiend like queen>Malcolm
  26. these deeds must not be thought (..) itwill make us mad
  27. wash your hands
  28. out damned spot: out I say
  29. beware Macduff
  30. none of woman born shall harm Macbeth
  31. Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until Great Birnham wood to high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him
  32. something wicked this way comes
  33. when shall we three meet again
  34. secret black and midnight hags
  35. We have scorch’d the snake, not killed it
  36. O full of scorpions is my mind

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to AAB of having such a wide product portfolio? f292 business ocr aab case study

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to AAB of having such a wide product portfolio?

A product portfolio consists of the different ranges of products that a business has to offer. AAB currently posses a wide product portfolio, where products are based on a range of high end, and low end products as well as varying from baby mattresses to clothing. There are obvious advantages and disadvantages to this, that AAB will need to consider before widening their product portfolio further.

AAB’s product portfolio consists of “hundreds of different products including maternity, baby clothes, pushchairs, car seat, nursery furniture and decorations, toys and feeding utensils.” One advantage is that this helps AAB to maximise sales and market share, for example if a customer wishes to purchase a product from the established business but perhaps do not require a mattress, AAB can generate profit elsewhere int he business for example through their toys and feeding utensils. Another way that AAB will be able to maximise their profits through having a wide product portfolio is that they are able to cater to different ranges of customers, for example by having both feeding utensils and baby clothes as well as push chairs and car seats, it means that the business will be able to cater for both new born babies as well as toddlers. This is advantageous as it means that AAB will inevitably be making sales at all aspects of the business- and ultimately help Javier and Elizabeth reach their 12 month strategic objective of returning to profitability.

Additionally, AAB’s wide product portfolio helps the business to cater to different segments of the market. For example by introducing AAB’s basic foam mattress range caters to the lower socio economic groups as well as the supreme mattress which helps cater for higher socio economic groups means that AAB are covering mass audiences in their target market. This is clearly an advantage as it means that AAB will be able to make sales from both customers that have a lower budget as well as the customers that require luxury products: this will further benefit AAB as it means they will be able to spread their exposure and influence on the public by establishing a good reputation and word of mouth by making products that appeal to a large range of buyers.

It could also be argued however that AAB’s wide product portfolio makes it easier for the business’ reputation to become tarnished by other products. For example, if a customer decides to purchase a mattress from the basic range and finds that it is not the quality they desire, it may mean that one product that AAB supplies builds an entire bad reputation on the whole product range offered at AAB and therefore prevents the customer from buying any more of AAB’s products due to the fear of having a similar experience. It could be argued that it would be more beneficial for AAB to have a smaller, tighter control of high quality products rather than a large range of average to poor quality products offered. Therefore, an obvious disadvantage means that it becomes easier for AAB to be impacted by bad word of mouth and a bad reputation of a few products.

Further to this, AAB will be able to become less vulnerable to adverse changes in one market segment. For example, if AAB find that they are experiencing a current economic recession in one of the many countries they supply to, it means that the impact will be reduced by having a wide product range. Additionally then, if AAB experience a boom, they will also be able to reap the benefits. It could be argued that one reason for AAB having a better stance over competitors after the recession is due to its ability to become versatile to ever-changing markets through products that appeal to more than one type of customer e.g. can be more affordable in times of economic recession.

However, one disadvantage of AAB’s wide product portfolio is that it hinders the ability of Javier and Elizabeth to expertise in one particular field. For example, if the couple solely based their business AAB around baby mattresses, it means that they will spend all their time investing in to that field, whereas by spreading their interest into a number of different fields, Javier and Elizabeth are prevented from gaining the knowledge and expertise they could have benefitted from if they specialised in only one field of the baby industry. This is a disadvantage as it means that they are less likely to be able to explore and create new innovative products through the deep exploration of one product as they have to spread their interests evenly throughout the business. Further to this, it could also mean that they are unable to offer expert advice to customers who want to know specific things due to having to provide knowledge for a wide range of products.

Lastly, it could be said that AAB’s wide product portfolio helps to spread risk. Inevitably, at different times, different products or AAB’s product range will become vulnerable to changes in demand. Therefore, by keeping a wide product range, if for example the demand for luxury and vibrant pushchairs decrease due to external factors, it means that AAB will still be able to make profit elsewhere in the business for example in the maternity wear for mothers or even the clothing and utensils for children. Therefore an advantage of having a wider product range means that AAB are able to disperse risk widely rather than having one vulnerable market.

Terrorism revision – conflict war and terrorism edexcel government and politics unit 4d option d


The events of September 11 changed the view of terrorism significantly. Terrorism is a form of political violence that aims to achieve its objectives through creating a climate of fear and apprehension (Goodin 2006)

What are some aims of terrorism?

  • to instill fear in people’s minds
  • achieve political aims: IRA
  • religious aims (Woolwich attack)
  • nationalism: IRA
  • Protest against US hegemony

Ignatieff 2004 distinguishes between four different types of terrorism:

  1. Insurrectionary- aimed at the revolutionary overthrow of a state (anarchist and revolutionary communist terrorism)
  2. Loner or issue terrorism- aimed at the promotion of a single cause (bombing of abortion clinics in the USA and 1995 sarin nerve gas attack on Tokyo subway)
  3. Nationalism terrorism- aims to overthrow colonial rule or occupation, often with the goal of gaining independence for an ethnic religious or national group. Examples include FLN in Algeria, the liberation tigers of Tamil eelam
  4. Global terrorism: aimed at inflicting damage and humiliation on a global power or at transforming global civilisation (al Qaeda and other form of Islamism terrorist groups)

However the concept of new terrorism suggesting that there has been a change on the nature of terrorism predates the 9/11 attacks, interest in it being stimulated by events such as the 95 attack on Tokyo subway and the 97 massacre in Luxor. But what is new terrorism and how new is it?

According to Hoffman 2006: by 1995, almost half of the 56 terrorist groups believed to be religious in character and motivation. Al Qaeda was a certain example of this trend, motivated by broad radical politico religious ideology in the form of Islamism.

How to counter terrorism:

1.)Negotiations/political deals: Basque/ South Africa/ Northern Ireland = successful. Afghanistan=unsuccessful


-definite end to terrorism if the terrorist groups aims are met

-seen as the peaceful option (wont make matters worse) e.g. Good Friday agreement. Prevents further conflict (NI)


-takes too long to negotiate

-encourage others (sets precedent)

-legitimises terrorist organisations.

2.)Military repression: Afghanistan/Chechnya/Peru:Shining Path, Columbia FARC


-can work seen in Checnya, liberal views of being moral


-kill more people and make it worse


-undermines state sovereignty

-human rights jeopardised

-can encourage more attacks e.g Vietnam

3.)Increasing state security: jeopardises human rights e.g through spying


-prevents terrorist attacks


-removal of human rights (civil liberties) USA patriot.

Terrorism tactics and methods

  • Guerrilla tactics
  • suicide bombings
  • IED/landmines
  • threats
  • youtube/propaganda
  • political wing
  • kidnapping/randsom
  • destroy infrastructure

Implications of using military tactics to contain terrorism:

  1. fastest method rather than diplomacy
  2. leads to a further loss of lives
  3. may encourage more violence
  4. leads to watered down resolutions
  5. unnecessary

Does the need to counter terrorism justify restricting human rights and basic human freedoms?


  • The weakness of the strong: liberal democratic societies are weak in the sense that such as freedom of movement and legal checks on government power can be exploited. In other words, toleration and legality can become their worst enemy providing advantages for groups that oppose all these things. Effective counter terrorism must deprive terrorists of these advantages
  • The lesser evil: curtailing rights is justifiable when the rightness of an action is judged on the basis of whether it provides the good for the greatest number. Ignatieff 2004 argues that this is the lesser evil
  • The necessity of dirty hands: the doctrine of dirty hands is based on the belief that public morality is separate from private. It may thus be right for political leaders to do wrong if this serves public morality.


  • Counterproductive anti terrorism: in a sense all terrorism seeks to prove an overreaction on the part of government. Terrorism achieves its ends not through violent attacks but through a government’s response.
  • Freedom as a fundamental value: for HR supporters: morality is not a question of trade offs and calculations about the greater good. It is about the intrinsic rightness or wrongness of actions. As human rights are absolute fundamental and universal, an actions such as restricting civil liberties is wrong, no matter how inconvenient.
  • Moral authority and soft power: terrorism cannot be combated through state security alone: in important ways terrorism Is a hearts and minds issue: if a clear ethical line cannot be drawn, governments lose authority and undermines public support e.g controversial practices associated with GITMO and damaged the USA’s soft power and support behind it’s war on terror.

War on terror: name given to multiple wars and conflicts started by the USA and allies to combat terrorism.

Afghanistan (2001)

  1. Cause: 9/11 attack. Failed smart power
  2. UN: approved
  3. Early results: Taliban removed from Kabul. Al Qaeda slanted away.
  4. Continuation: insurgency. Turned humanitarian continued (bin laden killed in 2011)

Iraq (2003)

  1. Cause: alleged WMD’s. Pre emptive strike.
  2. UN: opposed/vetoed: coalition of the willing
  3. Early results: quickly removed from government. No WMD’s found
  4. Continuation: insurgency, humanitarian. RELATIVELY stable since.




Apsl case study ocr f297 10) discuss the need for, and the significance of, a constant review of market and environmental circumstances to help make decisions over the strategic direction of APSL.

10) Discuss the need for, and the significance of, a constant review of market and environmental circumstances to help make decisions over the strategic direction of APSL.

APSL currently operate in a highly sensitive market. Upon coming out of the recent recession and the possibility of new competitors entering the market, APSL will need to ensure that they constantly carry out both internal and external audits to review and amend their ability to successfully meet their objectives. In this case, APSL hope to expand to EU markets as well as improve their solvency ratios in their 10 year strategic objectives and therefore Kate, John and Peter will need to make sure that they are taking the relevant steps required in order to meet their target.

Firstly,it is important that APSL constantly review the market so that their products are able to appeal to the current needs of customers. For example, if APSL spot a trend of customers and businesses wanting to appear more ethical and environmentally friendly, it provides an opportunity for APSL to cater to those clients and as a result provide a direction into reaching their objective of improving solvency. This is seen through APSL’s current relationship with clients Albion Aerospace: who are interested in the new product of Flaxiboard. Through APSL’s review of environmental issues such as recycling and the need for renewable materials, they were able to discover Flaxiboard, and as a result were able to potentially secure a deal of 60 doors by Albion. Briefly, this shows an example of how reviewing the current market and trends can be useful in maximising profits. If APSL continue to do this, it is likely that they will discover other products, customers and environmental trends that they are able to make a profit out of. Ultimately, an exploration of the current market will allow APSL to develop unique selling points.

Indeed, it is incredibly essential for APSL to conduct frequent external audits to evaluate and review the current market. One reason for this is it could suggest areas which APSL may need to amend such as pricing issues. If APSL find that a new competitor selling similar thermoformed and polyurethane components, it is important they are able to stay on top of competition and maintain repeat custom. For example, if a new competitor is offering similar products and cheaper prices, it could risk the current customer base returning to APSL and therefore APSL will need to implement an appropriate pricing strategy that ensures that they do not lose out on profit margins. APSL may decide to introduce competitive pricing strategies to ensure any competitors do not have a detrimental impact on APSL’s margins. Therefore, a constant review of the market is ensuring that APSL are able to ‘bounce back’ from competition.

Furthermore, another significance of a constant review of the market is that APSL are able to adopt a pricing strategy accordingly. For example, by carrying out an external market audit, APSL can see how their current customers react to changes in price. If APSL review the market through using price elasticity of demand and therefore find customers are elastic towards price, John, Kate and Peter will know that they have little scope to increase prices to increase their profit margins. This tool for reviewing the market can be particularly useful when APSL focus on meeting another important objective of increasing their distribution of products outside the European Union as it can help the business choose an appropriate price strategy that customers outisde Europe will be willing to pay, as well as APSL ensuring that their prices are in line with the competition.

Another reason that APSL should frequently review their status in the market by carrying out an internal market audit is that they are able to predict changes in their cash flow forecast. If the economy is looking increasingly worse than predicted, APSL will be able to amend their current forecast by expecting lower revenue in a particular month etc. Therefore, by reviewing their place in the market, APSL will be less impacted by fluctuations in the economy. Additionally, an advanced review of the market will help APSL make adequate changes: for example, APSL could carry out a debtor/creditor days calculation and work out if they need to speed up payments from its debtors in order to cover their costs that particular month for example their fixed costs.

It is vital that APSL review the current market in order to quickly bounce back from economic recessions and fluctuations within the market. If APSL continually carry out market audits, they are able to make sufficient decisions in advance and foresee future changes in their cash flow forecast. This will inevitably be a useful tool for APSL in the future as it means that they are more versatile as a business and are able to spot opportunities that will help them meet their overall objective of improving their solvency ratios.

To what extent do you agree that gothic writing does lack tension and suspense? Macbeth and The Bloody Chamber

It has been a while since I posted any English material! For those of you who didn’t already know, AQA has uploaded the

“Gothic writing lacks tension and suspense because the end is always inevitable.”

To what extent do you agree that gothic writing does lack tension and suspense?

(40 marks)


From the opening lines “I remember,” Carter instantly alludes to a Romeo and Juliet style opening: we know she survives. By telling her recount in retrospect, Carter steals away any form of tension and suspense from the narrator’s possible ending. Whilst Carter’s choice of narrative recount is told in retrospect, the text lacks further its ability to shock readers in the same way that traditional Gothic literature does. Whilst it could be argued that some tension is bought to the collections longest stories “The Bloody Chamber” through the tantalising manner in which the Marquis delivers his keys “one by one” and then revealing “except this one” it becomes clear that the female protagonist is damned for exploration. With all Gothic literature, the discovery of forbidden knowledge inevitably leaves the narrator to revel in sin. Ultimately then, it becomes clear that when the Marquis forbids her from exploring the chamber, there is forbidden secrets hidden there but also that punishment lies ahead if she rebels against “[her] Marquis.” For this reason, it is reasonable to argue that Carter’s Gothic texts bans readers from an exploration into the “unknown”, as Gothic literature once did, through the easily identifiable aspects of a Gothic text: sin, punishment, and even more frequent, death.

Additionally, The Bloody Chamber appears to lack tension through its inevitable ending in the short story of The Werewolf. Carter herself, is known to “extract the latent content of traditional fairy tales” and thus by building upon these household tales, Carter is no longer able to offer readers an option to access an unpredictable narrative. The Werewolf is an extension of the traditional Brother’s Grimm tale: Red Riding Hood, yet the Gothic writer adds a dark, feminist twist on these traditional tales. With this in mind, it becomes clear that the ending of The Werewolf is far from unpredictable: “the young girl Prospered” where the ‘Werewolf,’ was left beaten to death. Despite the Werewolf in actual fact taking the place of the young girl’s grandmother, it is typical that Carter metaphorically murders patriarchy with a young, yet prospering and fearless girl. Carter’s Werewolf by no means builds tension: the short two page narrative allows readers to guess the ending of the story before the narrative has even begun. Even through the opening lines, it becomes clear that the “young girl armed with her Father’s hunting knife” is fearful of anything but the forest.

On the other hand, perhaps Gothic tales only appear deceivingly simple and as a result falsely become labelled as ‘lacking tension’ and suspense. Whist in the 21st century, a reader hardly approaches the text of Macbeth with no external insight to background information in relation to context or plot. However, it Is unreasonable to argue that the text offers no element of suspense.  When first introduced to Lady Macbeth, she appears headstrong and even the dominant one in an unorthodox Elizabethan marriage. Lady Macbeth taunts her husband, questioning his manliness by saying “when you durst do it, then you were a man.” Throughout Act 1 scene 7, the “fiend like queen” is presented as haughty, brash and in control. Therefore, when we see the character’s downfall towards the end of the play, it could be argued as unexpected and therefore Shakespeare builds suspense. Additionally, the use of equivocation to unravel Macbeth’s uncertain fate contributes to the suspense built by Shakespeare. The fact the Witches prophecy deliver outcomes such as “None of Woman born shall harm Macbeth” certainly create tension. The sheer impossibility of the statement and the inevitable ill destine for Macbeth instantly forces readers to question, debate and foresee future event. In short, Macbeth’s death from the suzerain delivered Macduff is far from predictable.