9 explain why the term terrorism is controversial and has been contested?
Terrorism, by Goodin, has been defined as a means of aiming to achieve political reach through the use of aggressive actions, often creating fear and apprehension. Examples of terrorism include suicide bombings, plane hijacks and hostages. They are often high profile and pursued by non state actors.
- the term has been controversial due to the illegitimacy it implies. Yet, one terrorist can be another’s freedom fighter and therefore it proves unfair to all.
- critics say that this term systematically delegitimises groups and motives by upholding existing power structure.
- radical theorists argue that the term terrorism should be rejected from an association between non state actors and rather emphasised with “state terrorism”
10 to what extent is the environment a global issue?
- The environment has no borders and therefore each state is vulnerable for another’s.
- Free riders may feel that due to the environment being a collective good, they have no responsibility
- Concerted action is needed and therefore it becomes a global issue [radical theory]
11 explain the tensions between human rights and state sovereignty?
Human rights are the rights to which people are supposedly entitled by virtue of
being human. These rights are universal, fundamental, indivisible and absolute.
Tensions exist between human rights and state sovereignty because the former has
cosmopolitan implications that conflict with the latter. Human rights imply that
there are standards of conduct that should apply in all countries and in all parts of
the world, regardless of nationality, religion, ethnicity and so forth. State
sovereignty, by contrast, implies that each state should be regarded as an
independent and autonomous entity, solely responsible for determining the
conditions of life within their borders. States’ rights therefore conflict with human
rights, a tension that is particularly evident in the case of humanitarian intervention
which may be carried out in furtherance of human rights but amounts to a violation
of state sovereignty.
12 distinguish between the alternative and orthodox view of development
The ‘orthodox’, or economic liberal, view of development understands poverty
squarely in economic terms and implies that development can be equated with
economic growth, an increase in GDP. The central mechanism, from this
perspective, for promoting growth is a free-market system, with underdevelopment
being explained in terms of blockages that prevent the establishment
of market capitalism.
The ‘alternative’ view of development tends to reflect the ideas of the global South.
It adopts a humanistic view of poverty, based on opportunity and empowerment,
rather than an economic model. It also tends to stress factors such as self-reliance,
ecological balance (sustainable development), social and cultural inclusion and the
recognition that global poverty has a structural character, stemming, in part, from
disparities in the international trading system.
13 international action over climate change will always be blocked by a disagreement between developed and developing states?
There are three main reasons to why developing countries disagree with developed solutions to resolve climate change:
- Developed states believe they have a higher population and therefore emission levels should be set accordingly, but developed countries are reluctant to accept this due to lower population.
- Developing states believe they have a “right to development” in the same way that developed states had in order to grow.
- Developing states believe that it is mostly the developed states that caused high levels of pollution in the first place in order to develop.